National Children's Science Congress, also referred to as Children's Science Congress at the district and state levels is the flagship programme of National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC), Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India. It is a platform for children to carry out small research activities at micro-level. The seeds of this programme were planted in Madhya Pradesh by an NGO called Gwalior Science Centre. It was later adopted by the NCSTC, DST for extending it to the national level. Initially the programme was coordinated by the then NCSTC-Network (a network of non-government and government organisations working in the field of science popularisation) as national organiser. Since 2014, NCSTC, DST has been organising the Children's Science Congress with the guidance and support of the National Academic Committee, a core group of experienced academic team constituted by the NCSTC, DST, Government of India.
The programme aims at spreading the concept of the method of science among the children with their project activities adopting the process of learning through doing. The mandate of participation is that the children will carry out a project on a particular topic in relation to a Focal theme and several sub-themes decided for a period of two consecutive years. The study is to be carried out in the neighbourhood of the children where they live or study. It is a group activity on a local specific problem using simple method of science.
It was a time when most of the country’s science communicators were involved in massive science popularisation movements like Bharat Jana Vigyan Jatha (1987) and Bharat Jana Gyan Vigyan Jatha (1992). It was then felt that the large scale activities for developing science awareness among the masses were to be continued as a regular activity and hence the Children's Science Congress was launched as a nationwide programme in 1993. The expectation was that it would enhance scientific temperament, arouse scientific curiosity and improve the understanding of the method of science among children vis-á-vis teachers with the aim that in the long run it would benefit the society at large. So the programme of NCSC has been successfully conducted since then